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Nice Guide to Producing Transplants

I hope that no one here minds if I post this here, but I found it to be good info. Most of you guys probably already know most of this though (I just like sharing) So, here are a few excerpts from the guide that OSU sent me on Producing Transplants that I found really interesting:

Transplant Feeding
Fertigation, or the use of water-soluble fertilizers at the time of each watering, is one method of feeding young vegetable transplants. The usual concentration is 100-220 ppm per feeding. An alternative method is fertilization at 7- to 10-day intervals at a nitrogen concentration of 300 ppm. Adjust fertilization according to temperature and light conditions. Some soluble fertilizers are:
Fertilizer Rate
20-20-20 0.75-1.0 lb/50 gal of water
15-15-15 1.0-1.5 lb/50 gal of water
15-30-15 1.0-1.25 lb/50 gal of water
Apply fertilizer per 200 sq ft. Also, rinse leaves slightly after feeding. Vegetables sensitive to high levels of ammonium sources of nitrogen should be fertilized with 15-15-15, which has at least 50% of its nitrogen in nitrate form.

Transplant ConditionIt is important to use transplants that are in good condition. Plants should not be too large or too hardened and should not have a large number of the roots removed by pulling the plants. Severely wilted plants can be soaked in water, or in some cases, merely placed between water-soaked cloth for a short time to revive them prior to transplanting.
Plants should be planted 1-2 inches deeper than in the plant bed, and the soil should be well-firmed around the roots. Most mechanical transplanters permit the addition of water or starter fertilizer. However, if weather conditions are dry and windy, wait for better transplanting conditions.

Starter Solutions
Starter solutions are water-soluble, high-phosphorus fertilizers applied to young plants at the time of transplanting. They are used commonly with tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, melons and cole crops. The use of starters should be considered standard procedure for transplanting operations. Starter fertilizers supply phosphorus in an available form even when cold soil temperatures restrict phosphorus uptake. However, at soil temperatures below 56°F, phosphorus uptake is restricted. The use of starters promotes root development, early flowering and increased yield in tomatoes.
Common starter fertilizers include:
The usual rate is to mix 3 lb of the dry material per 50 gal of water. Then, 1/2 pt is applied per plant. Label directions should be followed. Excess starter can severely burn roots and reduce plant stand; applications at twice the recommended rate can reduce stands by 50%. Therefore, it is important to read all labels. Starters can be applied to the transplants in the plant containers, but more benefit is obtained if starters are applied in the transplant water.

Disease Management in the GreenhouseManagement of diseases during transplant production in the greenhouse is a vital first step toward producing a healthy crop. The best strategy is to prevent disease by using clean seed, proper sanitation and appropriate environmental conditions.
Ideally seed that has been tested for the presence of pathogens should be used. If testing has not been done, seed treatment may be considered (see page 24). Planting mixes, flats, benches, tools, etc., must be clean and free of pathogen propagules. Benches should be raised and watering hoses and nozzles should be kept off the floor or ground. Plants should not be overwatered and greenhouses should be well ventilated.
A few chemicals are labeled for disease control on greenhouse vegetable crops. Botran may be used for control of white mold (sclerotinia) and Botrytis (gray mold, leaf rot or stem canker) on cucumber, lettuce rhubarb and tomato.
Apply according to labeled rates and timing.
Mancozeb may be applied to cucumbers, melons, squash, tomatoes and watermelons in the greenhouse for the control
of various diseases (see label). Note that mancozeb, as an EBDC fungicide, may not be acceptable to vegetable processors and some other markets (see page 58).

Disinfectants for Use in and Around Plant Beds and Greenhouses
Bleach (sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite) (5.25%, diluted 1:9).
• Use: surface disinfectant. Effective against small microbes such as viruses, bacteria and fungus spores. Surfaces should be visibly clean before they are wiped or dipped in solutions. Has good penetration activity.
• Disadvantages: no residual action, corrosive to iron. Solutions rapidly lose activity, especially in light or in the presence of organic matter. Not effective in killing fungus sclerotia or other resting structures.
Phenols (Amphyl, Lysol, CM-19); usually contain surfactants and alcohol (1-3 oz/5 gal of water).
• Use: surface disinfectant. Effective against bacteria and fungus spores. Solutions retain activity for some time.
• Disadvantage: not effective against fungus sclerotia or viruses. Poor penetration. Rapidly broken down when in contact with organic matter.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (Physan-20) (1 oz/2 gal water).
• Use: surface disinfectant. Good algicide.
• Disadvantages: not effective against viruses or fungus sclerotia. Very reactive and breaks down quickly on contact with air and organic matter. Poor penetration. Compounds should be used promptly after mixing

Seed Treatments
Seed treatments are useful for many vegetable crops for the prevention of damping-off and some other root diseases, as well as eliminating certain diseases carried on the seed.
There are two general types of seed treatment: eradicative and protective. Eradicative seed treatments kill diseasecausing agents on or within seed and are useful in controlling certain seed-borne diseases. Protective seed treatments are applied to the seed surface and protect the seed against decay and damping-off caused by soil-borne organisms.
Hot water treatment: Properly used, this treatment kills most disease-causing organisms on or within seed. This treatment is suggested for seeds of eggplant, pepper, tomato, cucumber, carrot, spinach, lettuce, celery, cabbage, turnip, radish and other crucifers. Improper treatment can cause seed injury. Seed of cucurbits can be severely damaged by hot-water treatment.
Pre-warm seed in a loosely woven cotton bag (not over one-half full) for 10 minutes in 100°F water. Place pre-warmed seed in a water bath that will constantly hold the water at the recommended temperature (see table below). Length of treatment and temperature of water must be exact. After treatment, dip bags in cold water to stop heating action. Spread seed out to dry. Always apply a protective seed treatment fungicide to hot-water-treated seed.
Caution: Old seed can be severely injured by this treatment. A small sample of any seed lot over 1 year old should be treated and tested for germination to determine the amount of injury, if any, that might occur.
Fungicide seed treatment: Thiram is the most frequently suggested seed-protectant fungicide. Other fungicides are recommended for specific crops. These fungicides are often combined with insecticides, and these combinations may be superior to fungicide treatment alone. Dust seeds lightly with fungicide in accordance with label directions or purchase seeds already treated.
Do not use treated seed for food or feed.
Bleach treatment: Bleach treatment effectively removes bacterial pathogens on the seed surface. Bleach treatment is recommended for peppers, tomatoes, cucurbits and other vegetables if the seeds have not been treated by another method.
Agitate seeds in a solution of 1 qt household bleach in 4 qt water with one teaspoon surfactant for 1 minute. Use 1 gallon of disinfectant solution per pound of seed and prepare a fresh solution for each batch. Rinse seed thoroughly in running tap water for five minutes; then spread out seed to dry. Dust seed with Thiram 75 WP (1 teaspoon/lb seed). Carry out seed treatment near planting time, as viability may be reduced over time. It is recommended that a small sample (e.g., 50-100 seeds) of each seed lot to be treated is treated then tested for seed germination before the entire seed lot is treated.
If coated seed or seed treated with fungicide are further treated with hot water or bleach, waste water should be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.

2008 Ohio Vegetable Production Guide Producing Transplants 23
I trust university engineering....that is why the US is so good with engineering is because "a young mind is a terrible thing to waste"...so if this response came from OSU, it is gospel....

Even thought it is not a ruling SEC school.........(yes, slap in the face of the Big 10 intended..come on folks, laugh with me)...
I'm not sure what you are implying, but I grew up going to OSU football games since I was raised in Columbus. So easy now...LOL:P AND I must say...GO BUCKEYES!!! :lol: :P

Twig Walkingstick is a friend of mine. And I have written Martha Filipic several times. They work in the News & Media Relations department.

(Not a Buckeye Fan, though!)
mudatvs said:
I'm not sure what you are implying, but I grew up going to OSU football games since I was raised in Columbus. So easy now...LOL:P AND I must say...GO BUCKEYES!!! :lol: :P


Buckeye Who????????????????????

Seems they have bowed their heads to the superior schools the past two years.........next time it will be Auburn....

War Fuc***' Eagle.........

SEC to the Core here.......can I get an amen on that?